Taken Together Executive Agreements And Executive Orders Are Designed To
In the United States, executive agreements are binding internationally when negotiated and concluded under the authority of the president on foreign policy, commander-in-chief of the armed forces, or a previous act of Congress. For example, the president, as commander-in-chief, negotiates and enters into status of forces agreements (SOFAs) governing the treatment and disposition of U.S. armed forces stationed in other nations. However, the President may not unilaterally conclude executive agreements on matters not within his constitutional authority. In such cases, an agreement should take the form of an agreement between Congress and the executive or a contract with deliberation and approval by the Senate.  Executive orders from the White House www.whitehouse.gov/briefing-room/presidential-actions/executive-orders the current presidential administration are available as PDF from the White House Press Office. National Archives and Records Administration www.archives.gov/federal-register/executive-orders/ archives of all things related to the U.S. administration, the National Archives has a digital index of executive orders that can be searched by date, number, or subject. Orders can be displayed as a PDF or text, in the Federal Register or in Title 3 of the U.S. American Presidency Project Code www.presidency.ucsb.edu/executive_orders.php An archive maintained by the University of California Santa Barbara contains texts from almost every executive order that dates back to the year of release to the early nineteenth century.
The use of executive contracts increased significantly after 1939. Before 1940, the U.S. Senate had ratified 800 treaties and presidents had concluded 1200 executive agreements; From 1940 to 1989, during World War II and the Cold War, presidents signed nearly 800 treaties, but negotiated more than 13,000 executive agreements. An executive agreement is an agreement with the executive of another country, such as the nuclear deal with Iran. The U.S. Constitution does not explicitly give a president the power to enter into executive agreements. However, it may be authorized to do so by Congress or it may do so on the basis of the power to manage foreign relations granted to it. Despite the question of the constitutionality of executive agreements, the Supreme Court ruled in 1937 that they have the same force as treaties.
As executive agreements are concluded on the authority of the President-in-Office, they do not necessarily bind his successors. Executive orders are issued by the White House and are used to direct the executive of the U.S. administration. Executive orders set binding requirements on the executive and have legal effect. They are passed in respect of a law passed by Congress or on the basis of powers conferred on the President by the Constitution and must be in accordance with those authorities. Executive orders are numbered and abbreviated «EO XXXXX». Executive orders are numbered in ascending order, so a higher number means the order was placed more recently. Executive orders can change previous orders. In the United States, executive agreements are concluded exclusively by the President of the United States.
They are one of three mechanisms through which the United States make binding international commitments. Some authors consider executive agreements to be treaties under international law, as they bind both the United States and another sovereign state. However, under U.S. constitutional law, executive agreements are not considered treaties within the meaning of the contractual clause of the U.S. Constitution, which requires the Council and the approval of two-thirds of the Senate to be considered a treaty. Executive orders are issued by the Presidents of the United States and are addressed to officials and authorities of the United States federal government. Implementing decrees have the full force of law if they are based on authority deriving from the law or the Constitution itself. . . .